One of the interrelated components of the Earth’s system, the cryosphere includes snow cover, floating ice, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, seasonally frozen ground and
perennially frozen ground (permafrost).
It is thus distinguished by negative or zero temperature (°C), and the presence of water in the solid or super-cooled state. Fluctuations in the volume of the cryosphere cause changes in ocean sea-level, which directly impact the atmosphere and biosphere. It interacts with the (...)
Changes in the cryosphere among other things, challenge the stability of our present time, i.e., the Holocene - a 10,000-year era that followed the retreat of glaciers from mid-latitudes. The shrinking of the cryosphere has implications for water availability, food security, energy and public health, globally. Ultimately, potential changes in thermohaline circulation and extension of polar ice caps are the greatest threats to our society.
Sea-ice can be monitored from space. For example (...)